Key performance indicators for the Bayer Group are EBIT before special items and EBITDA before special items. These indicators are reported in order to allow a more accurate assessment of business operations. The special items – comprising effects that are non-recurring or do not regularly recur or attain similar magnitudes – are detailed in the following table. EBITDA, EBITDA before special items and EBIT before special items are not defined in the International Financial Reporting Standards and should therefore be regarded only as supplementary information. EBITDA before special items is a meaningful indicator of operating performance since it is not affected by depreciation, amortization, impairment losses, impairment loss reversals or special items. By reporting this indicator, the company aims to give readers a clear picture of the results of operations and ensure comparability of data over time. The EBITDA margin before special items, which is the ratio of EBITDA before special items to sales, serves as a relative indicator for the internal and external comparison of operational earning power.
Depreciation, amortization and impairments decreased by 3.1% in 2013 to €2,896 million (2012: €2,988 million), comprising €1,572 million (2012: €1,659 million) in amortization and impairments of intangible assets, impairment loss reversals of €13 million (2012: €21 million) and €1,337 million (2012: €1,350 million) in depreciation and impairments of property, plant and equipment. A total of €268 million (2012: €347 million) in depreciation, amortization and impairments constituted special items. This amount comprised €259 million (2012: €315 million) in impairment losses and €22 million (2012: €48 million) in depreciation and amortization, less €13 million (2012: €16 million) in impairment loss reversals.