Management Report & Annexes | Basic Information About the Group

12.1 Energy Consumption

Energy and material consumption and emission levels are highly dependent on the manufactured sales ­volume. Consequently, this is our reference parameter for evaluating energy and resource efficiency.

In 2013 Bayer’s manufactured sales volume fell by 1.4%. The Group’s total energy consumption meanwhile was even down 2.8% at 80.8 petajoules. We differentiate between primary energy consumption at our sites – mainly of fossil fuels to generate our own electricity and steam – and secondary energy consumption that reflects the purchase of electricity, steam and refrigeration energy and the use of process heat. Primary energy consumption fell by 3.0% and secondary energy consumption by 2.6%. Alongside the lower manufactured sales volume, an increased drive to improve efficiency also contributed to this disproportionately large decrease. The trend away from a correlation between manufactured sales volume and energy consumption already identified in previous years thus continued in 2013.

The volume of the fossil fuels natural gas, oil and coal consumed decreased in 2013. In the area of secondary energy sources, steam consumption fell significantly but electricity consumption was only slightly below the figure for the previous year. Developments varied according to subgroup and site.

Relationship between Energy Consumption and Manufactured Sales Volume[Table 3.12.1]
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Terajoules Terajoules Terajoules Terajoules Terajoules
Primary energy consumption
for the in-house generation of electricity & steam (1,000 TJ)
48.1 51.6 50.1 49.0 47.6
Natural gas 29,413 31,847 31,162 30,411 29,796
Coal 16,976 17,801 16,776 15,954 15,094
Liquid fuels 772 532 660 656 416
Waste (33) 678 515 1,005 1,282
Other* 996 774 983 1,021 994
Secondary energy consumption
as steam, electricity and refrigeration energy (net, 1,000 TJ)
29.2 34.1 34.8 34.1 33.3
Electricity** 23,675 25,229 25,475 25,849 25,560
Steam (net from purchase/sale) (2,092) 722 1,054 (121) (801)
Steam from waste heat (process heat) 8,273 8,722 9,000 9,144 9,146
Refrigeration energy (net from purchase/sale) (654) (595) (683) (735) (639)
Total energy consumption
(1,000 TJ)
77.3 85.7 84.9 83.2 80.8
Manufactured sales volume
(million metric tons)
8.7 10.4 11.0 11.2 11.1
Energy efficiency (MWh/t)*** 4.09 3.77 3.63 3.50 3.44

* e.g. hydrogen

** Secondary energy consumption for electricity is based on the raw material mix of the country concerned.

*** Energy efficiency: quotient of total energy consumption and manufactured sales volume. For MaterialScience, only manufactured sales volumes that also form the basis for calculating MaterialScience-specific emissions are taken into account.

Bayer utilizes primary energy as efficiently as possible and applies cogeneration in more than 90% of its energy generation. The electricity and heat generated are used in our own production facilities and third-party facilities (especially of Lanxess Deutschland GmbH as the other shareholder of our service company Currenta). The (secondary) energy purchased via us is also used at third-party production facilities. Furthermore, we purchase electricity on the market – through electricity exchanges, for example. In the ­reporting period, the proportion of renewable energies Group-wide was 0.7%. We comment in detail on these issues in the CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project-Climate Change Program) Report.

Last updated: June 2, 2014  Copyright © Bayer AG